The Spark of Progress: The Fascinating Story of Electricity

The story of electricity begins with the ancient Greeks, who discovered that rubbing fur on amber could produce an electric charge. However, it wasn’t until the 18th century that electricity was truly understood and harnessed for practical use.

In 1752, Benjamin Franklin famously flew a kite during a thunderstorm, demonstrating that lightning was a form of electrical discharge. This led to a better understanding of electricity and the development of early electrical machines such as the Leyden jar, which could store an electrical charge.

A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar, or archaically, sometimes Kleistian jar) is an electrical component that stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar. It typically consists of a glass jar with metal foil cemented to the inside and the outside surfaces, and a metal terminal projecting vertically through the jar lid to make contact with the inner foil. It was the original form of the capacitor[1] (also called a condenser).[2]

Its invention was a discovery made independently by German cleric Ewald Georg von Kleist on 11 October 1745 and by Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek of Leiden (Leyden), Netherlands in 1745–1746.[3]

The Leyden jar was used to conduct many early experiments in electricity, and its discovery was of fundamental importance in the study of electrostatics. It was the first means of accumulating and preserving electric charge in large quantities that could be discharged at the experimenter’s will, thus overcoming a significant limit to early research into electrical conduction.[4] Leyden jars are still used in education to demonstrate the principles of electrostatics.

In the early 19th century, the discovery of electromagnetism by Hans Christian Oersted and the invention of the electric motor by Michael Faraday laid the foundation for the widespread use of electricity in industry and transportation.

Thomas Edison is perhaps the most famous inventor associated with electricity. He invented the incandescent light bulb in 1879, which revolutionised the way people lived by allowing them to work, read, and play after dark. Edison also developed the first power station, which used coal-fired steam engines to generate electricity for streetlights and businesses in New York City.

Thomas Edison is one of the most famous inventors in history and his contributions to the development of the modern world are immeasurable. Edison was an inventor and entrepreneur who held over 1,000 patents for his inventions, many of which had a significant impact on the way we live today.

One of Edison’s most important inventions was the incandescent light bulb. Prior to Edison’s invention, people relied on candles, gas lamps, and other forms of lighting that were inefficient and dangerous. Edison’s light bulb was the first practical and long-lasting electric light source, which could be used to light homes, businesses, and streets.

Edison’s invention of the light bulb was just the beginning of his work in the field of electricity. He also developed the first power station in New York City in 1882. The station was powered by coal-fired steam engines, which generated electricity that was transmitted through a network of cables to power streetlights and businesses.

In addition to his work with electricity, Edison also invented the phonograph, which was the first device capable of recording and playing back sound. The phonograph revolutionized the music industry and paved the way for modern audio recording technology.

Edison’s legacy extends beyond his many inventions. He was also a pioneer in the field of research and development, establishing the world’s first research and development laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey in 1876. This laboratory was dedicated to inventing new technologies and improving existing ones. Edison’s approach to research and development has had a lasting impact on the way we approach innovation today.

Overall, Thomas Edison’s work with electricity laid the foundation for the modern world we live in today. His inventions and innovations have transformed the way we live, work, and communicate, and his legacy as one of the greatest inventors in history continues to inspire new generations of innovators.

The invention of alternating current (AC) by Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse in the late 19th century made it possible to transmit electricity over long distances, allowing for the creation of large-scale power grids. This led to the widespread electrification of cities and the development of new technologies such as the radio, television, and electric appliances.

Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse were two of the most important figures in the history of electricity, working together to revolutionize the way electricity was generated and transmitted.

Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor and engineer who is best known for his work on alternating current (AC) electrical systems. He developed the AC induction motor, which is the basis for the modern electric motor, as well as a system for transmitting AC electricity over long distances. Tesla’s work with AC electricity was a major breakthrough in the field of electrical engineering and laid the foundation for the development of the modern power grid.

George Westinghouse was an American entrepreneur who was one of the pioneers of the electrical industry in the late 19th century. He founded the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, which was a major manufacturer of electrical equipment and played a crucial role in the development of AC power systems.

Westinghouse recognized the potential of Tesla’s AC system and purchased the patent rights to it in 1888. He then worked with Tesla to develop a practical system for generating and transmitting AC electricity over long distances. This system, known as the Westinghouse Tesla AC system, became the standard for electrical power generation and transmission in the United States and Europe.

The Westinghouse Tesla AC system was a major breakthrough in the field of electrical engineering. It allowed for the creation of large-scale power grids, which could transmit electricity over hundreds of miles, making it possible to supply electricity to entire cities and regions. This system was more efficient and cost-effective than the existing direct current (DC) system, which was championed by Thomas Edison.

Tesla and Westinghouse’s work on AC electricity revolutionized the electrical industry and paved the way for the widespread adoption of electrical power in homes, businesses, and industry. Their work laid the foundation for the modern electrical infrastructure that we rely on today, and their legacy continues to inspire new generations of inventors and engineers.

Today, electricity is an essential part of modern life, powering everything from homes and businesses to transportation and communication. It is generated from a variety of sources, including coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as wind and solar power.

Pace Electrical Pty Ltd | ABN 78 168 856 479
We are industrial and commercial electricians,
available to support industrial maintenance and commercial projects.

  • Installing new electrical systems
  • Troubleshooting electrical equipment
  • Repairing and maintaining equipment

Call Kevin:  0411 969 731
Kurmond NSW 2757

The Evolution of Soccer: A Journey Through Time and Culture

Soccer, also known as football, has a long and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years. The origins of soccer can be traced to ancient civilizations, where various forms of ball games were played for recreation and religious ceremonies.

One of the earliest documented examples of a ball game similar to soccer was played in China during the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD). The game, known as “cuju,” involved kicking a ball through a small goal without using hands. This sport eventually spread to Japan and Korea.

In ancient Rome, a game called “harpastum” was played, which was similar to soccer but involved a smaller ball and more physical contact between players. The game was often played in military training, and it was popular among soldiers.

Harpastum was an ancient Roman ball game that was played by soldiers and young men for recreation and physical training. The game was similar to soccer in that it involved kicking a ball, but it was also different in many ways.

Unlike modern soccer, harpastum did not have a fixed number of players, and there were no set rules or boundaries. The game was played on a large rectangular field, and the objective was to get the ball over the opponent’s boundary line.

The ball used in harpastum was smaller and heavier than a modern soccer ball, making it more difficult to control and kick accurately. The game was also much more physical than modern soccer, with players using their hands, feet, and body to gain possession of the ball. In fact, the word “harpastum” means “to seize” or “to snatch” in Latin, which reflects the rough nature of the game.

Harpastum was a popular sport in ancient Rome, and it was often played in military training to develop strength, endurance, and agility. It was also played in schools and by young men in their leisure time.

While harpastum eventually died out as the Roman Empire declined, its influence can still be seen in modern sports such as rugby and American football, which share many similarities with the ancient Roman game.

In the Middle Ages, various forms of ball games were played in Europe, including “mob football” in England, which involved entire villages playing against each other with few rules and no fixed field. This sport was violent and dangerous, and it was eventually banned.

Mob Football, also known as Medieval Football or Folk Football, was a popular game played in England during the Middle Ages. It was played between two rival teams, usually made up of entire villages or towns, and it was often held on special occasions such as holidays, weddings, or religious festivals.

Unlike modern soccer, Mob Football had few rules and no fixed field, and the objective was simply to get the ball to the opposing team’s end. The ball used in the game was made of inflated animal bladders, which made it difficult to control and kick accurately. The game was often played in the streets or on open fields, and it was not uncommon for players to get injured or for property damage to occur.

The name “Mob Football” reflects the chaotic nature of the game, which often involved large crowds of people pushing and shoving to gain possession of the ball. It was not uncommon for the game to turn violent, with players and spectators alike getting caught up in the excitement.

Mob Football was eventually banned by King Edward II in 1314 due to the violence and destruction associated with the game. However, it continued to be played in some areas despite the ban, and it is believed to have influenced the development of modern sports such as soccer and rugby.

Today, there are still a few towns in England that continue to play Mob Football as a traditional event on special occasions, although the rules have been adapted to make it a safer and more controlled game.

During the 19th century, modern soccer began to take shape in England, with the formation of clubs and the standardization of rules. The first soccer club, Sheffield FC, was founded in 1857, and the first soccer association, the Football Association (FA), was formed in 1863. The FA established the first official rules of soccer, including the use of a spherical ball and a ban on using hands (except by the goalkeeper).

Soccer quickly spread beyond England, with clubs and associations forming in other countries, including Scotland, France, and Germany. The first international soccer match was played in 1872 between England and Scotland.

In the 20th century, soccer became a global phenomenon, with the formation of international tournaments such as the World Cup and the establishment of professional leagues in Europe and South America. Today, soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with an estimated 4 billion fans and millions of players of all ages and skill levels.

Soccer, also known as football, remains one of the most popular sports in the world. The current state of soccer is vibrant, with a wide range of competitions and tournaments played at the professional and amateur levels. Here are some of the major competitions that are played in the world of soccer today.

FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup is the biggest and most prestigious soccer tournament in the world. Held every four years, the World Cup brings together national teams from around the world to compete for the title of world champion. The most recent World Cup was held in 2018 in Russia, and the next one is scheduled to be held in Qatar in 2022.

UEFA Champions League

The UEFA Champions League is an annual club competition that brings together the best teams from Europe. The competition involves a group stage followed by knockout rounds, with the winner being crowned the champion of Europe. The most successful team in the history of the competition is Real Madrid, who have won the tournament 13 times.

English Premier League

The English Premier League is the top professional soccer league in England, and one of the most popular leagues in the world. The league is made up of 20 teams, and each team plays 38 matches over the course of the season. The most successful team in the history of the Premier League is Manchester United, who have won the title 20 times.

Major League Soccer

Major League Soccer (MLS) is the top professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. The league is made up of 27 teams, and each team plays 34 matches over the course of the season. The league has been growing rapidly in recent years, with several high-profile players from around the world joining MLS teams.

These are just a few of the many competitions that are played in the world of soccer today. Soccer remains a global phenomenon, with millions of fans tuning in to watch matches and support their favourite teams. While the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the soccer calendar in recent years, the sport is slowly returning to normalcy, with fans once again able to attend matches and enjoy the beautiful game in person.

If you want to play at your best,

Custom orthotics for feet can significantly enhance your stability and performance when playing soccer. Orthotics are specialized insoles that are designed to fit the unique shape of your feet and provide support where you need it most. Here are a few ways in which custom orthotics can improve your performance on the soccer field.

  1. Improved Stability

Soccer requires a lot of quick changes in direction, jumping, and sprinting, which can put a lot of strain on your feet and ankles. Custom orthotics can provide additional support to your feet, helping to stabilize your joints and prevent injury. By keeping your feet in a neutral position, orthotics can help to reduce the risk of ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, and other common soccer injuries.

  1. Enhanced Comfort

Playing soccer for long periods of time can be tough on your feet. Custom orthotics can provide additional cushioning and shock absorption, helping to reduce foot fatigue and discomfort. By reducing the amount of stress on your feet, orthotics can help you stay more comfortable throughout the game, allowing you to play at your best for longer periods of time.

  1. Improved Performance

Custom orthotics can help to correct any imbalances in your feet or gait, which can have a significant impact on your overall performance on the soccer field. By ensuring that your feet are properly aligned, orthotics can improve your balance, reduce the risk of injury, and help you move more efficiently on the field. This can help you to improve your speed, agility, and overall performance when playing soccer.

In conclusion, custom orthotics for feet can enhance your stability and performance when playing soccer. By providing additional support, comfort, and correcting imbalances, orthotics can help you stay on top of your game and perform at your best. If you’re a soccer player looking to take your game to the next level, custom orthotics may be just what you need to achieve your goals.

This article was sponsored by

The Foot Alignment Clinic
88 Norton Street
Leichhardt, NSW 2040.
T: 02 9516 3547

Transforming Outdoor Spaces: A Look at Our Completed Project in Kellyville

It gives me immense pleasure to talk about the project we completed in Kellyville last year. It was a challenging yet fulfilling project that has left us and our clients very satisfied.

Our goal was to design a space that would allow our clients to entertain their guests from morning till night. With this in mind, we completed a deck around the pool, a tiled patio area, and a sunken fire pit. These features not only added to the beauty of the space but also served functional purposes.

The deck around the pool was designed to relax and enjoy the sun with non-slip, ensuring the safety of everyone using the space.

The sunken fire pit was the highlight of this project. We designed it to be the focal point of the space, a place where our clients could gather with their guests and enjoy the warmth of the fire with a a rustic and earthy look. We also installed built-in seating around the fire pit, making it an ideal spot for intimate conversations.

The Dracena Draco was a standout feature of this project. We strategically placed it in a location where it could be seen from various angles, adding to the overall aesthetics of the space. This plant species is known for its stunning appearance and low maintenance, making it a perfect addition to any outdoor space.

To ensure that this project was completed on time and within budget, we worked closely with our clients from the planning phase to the execution phase. We made sure to listen to their needs and preferences, incorporating their ideas into the design where possible. We also made sure to select materials that were not only aesthetically pleasing but also functional and long-lasting.

In conclusion, the project we completed in Kellyville last year was a great success. It was a space that allowed our clients to entertain their guests from morning till night. With the deck around the pool, tiled patio area, sunken fire pit, and standout feature of the Dracena Draco, we were able to create a space that was not only functional but also beautiful.

Contact Info
Fanscapingtastic | Schofields, Sydney | 0449 153 637

  1. #outdoorliving
  2. #landscapearchitecture
  3. #entertaining
  4. #Kellyville
  5. #sunkenfirepit

Transforming Your Outdoor Space with Garden Lighting

One of the great things about garden lighting is its versatility. With a few well-placed lights, you can transform any outdoor space into a stunning oasis. Whether you’re looking to create a romantic ambience for a date night or want to entertain guests with an outdoor dinner party, garden lighting can help set the tone.

In this photo-realistic garden, the lighting has been expertly designed to highlight the natural beauty of the space. Soft lights along the path guide visitors through the garden, while accent lighting on the trees and plants adds depth and texture. The colour lighting brings an additional layer of creativity, transforming the trees into works of art and infusing the space with a sense of playfulness.

But garden lighting is about more than just aesthetics. It can also have a significant impact on our emotions and well-being. The warm, welcoming glow of garden lights can create a sense of relaxation and tranquillity, helping to reduce stress and anxiety. It can also help us feel more connected to nature, even when we’re in the heart of a bustling city.

In this photo-realistic garden, the lighting helps to create a sense of calm and serenity. The soft glow of the path lights invites visitors to slow down and take their time exploring the space. The vibrant colours of the colour studio lighting add a touch of whimsy, sparking joy and delight. Together, the lighting creates a harmonious atmosphere that’s both inviting and rejuvenating.

Overall, garden lighting is a powerful tool for transforming outdoor spaces into magical, enchanting places. Whether you’re looking to create a romantic ambience or simply want to enjoy the beauty of nature, garden lighting is a great way to enhance your experience. With endless possibilities for design and creativity, it’s no wonder that garden lighting is becoming increasingly popular among homeowners and outdoor enthusiasts alike.

We would like to be part of your garden lighting transformation.

Brightworks Electrical Services
Servicing Lake Macquarie
115 Dobell Drive,
Wangi Wangi, NSW, 2267
Mobile : 0474 176 576


The History of Achilles Tendon Pain

Click to play video

Achilles tendon pain, also known as Achilles tendinopathy, has been recognised for centuries. The Achilles tendon is the largest and strongest tendon in the body, connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone.

The earliest known description of Achilles tendon pain dates back to ancient Greece, in the story of Achilles, the legendary Greek warrior. According to mythology, Achilles was invincible except for his heel, which was his only vulnerable spot. In the Trojan War, he was shot in the heel with an arrow and died from the injury.

The first medical description of Achilles tendon pain was recorded by the French surgeon, Jean Louis Petit, in 1778. He noted the pain and swelling in the Achilles tendon of a young soldier who had marched long distances. Petit believed that the condition was caused by excessive walking and marching, and he recommended rest and the use of a heel pad.

In the 19th century, several medical practitioners recognized the importance of the Achilles tendon in walking and running, and the potential for injury. In 1843, the French physician, Auguste Verneuil, described a condition he called “talalgia,” which he believed was caused by inflammation of the Achilles tendon.

In the early 20th century, the German surgeon, Georg Clemens Perthes, conducted pioneering research into the anatomy and function of the Achilles tendon. He identified the importance of the blood supply to the tendon and proposed that poor blood flow was a factor in the development of Achilles tendinopathy.

Today, Achilles tendon pain is a common condition among athletes and non-athletes alike. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including overuse, poor footwear, and bio-mechanical issues. Treatment options include rest, physical therapy, custom orthotics to correct foot alignment and in severe cases, surgery.

As our understanding of the foot and its function continues to deepen, it is likely that we will see new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of foot problems, as well as new strategies for preventing foot-related health issues.

The Foot Alignment Clinic is a leader in bio-mechanics and foot alignment, inventing and using the latest in technology for lower limb alignment.

Call 02 9516 3547 or Visit:

The Foot Alignment Evolution

The knowledge about feet has evolved significantly from the time of Leonardo da Vinci to the present day. Here are some key developments:

Leonardo da Vinci Era (late 15th to early 16th century):

  • Leonardo da Vinci was a pioneer in the study of human anatomy, and he made numerous drawings and notes about the structure and function of the feet.
  • He was particularly interested in the mechanics of the foot and how it interacts with the ground during walking and running.
  • Da Vinci’s anatomical drawings were some of the most accurate of his time, but they were limited by the technology available to him. He did not have access to X-rays or other imaging techniques, so he had to rely on dissection and observation to study the foot.

18th and 19th Centuries:

  • The development of the microscope and other scientific instruments allowed for more detailed study of the foot at the cellular and molecular level.
  • Scientists began to investigate the role of nerves and muscles in the foot, and to explore the ways in which the foot interacts with other parts of the body.
  • Some of the key figures in this era included French anatomist Jean-Martin Charcot, German physiologist Emil Du Bois-Reymond, and British orthopedic surgeon Hugh Owen Thomas.

20th Century:

  • The invention of X-rays and other imaging techniques revolutionized the study of the foot, allowing scientists and medical professionals to see the internal structure of the foot in great detail.
  • As a result, there have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of foot and ankle injuries and conditions.
  • One of the most important developments in the 20th century was the creation of the specialty of podiatry, which focuses specifically on the study and treatment of foot and ankle disorders.
  • Other key figures in the 20th century include American podiatrist Lawrence Harkless, who pioneered the use of new surgical techniques to treat foot and ankle problems, and British orthopedic surgeon Sir Robert Jones, who was instrumental in the development of modern orthopedic surgery.


  • The study of the foot continues to evolve, with new research on topics such as biomechanics, gait analysis, and the use of technology in foot health.
  • There is also a growing emphasis on preventative care, with podiatrists and other foot specialists working to educate the public about the importance of proper foot care and footwear.
  • In recent years, there has been a particular focus on the role of the foot in overall health and wellness, with studies showing that foot problems can contribute to a range of other health issues, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.
  • As our understanding of the foot and its function continues to deepen, it is likely that we will see new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of foot problems, as well as new strategies for preventing foot-related health issues.

The Foot Alignment Clinic is a leader in bio-mechanics and foot alignment, inventing and using the latest in technology for lower limb alignment.

Vertical Foot Alignment System invented by Neil Smith of the Foot Alignment Clinic